OpenCores

*openMSP430 :: Integration and connectivity

Integration and Connectivity


Table of content

1. Overview

This chapter aims to give a comprehensive description of all openMSP430 core interfaces in order to facilitate its integration within an ASIC or FPGA.

The following diagram shows an overview of the openMSP430 core connectivity in an FPGA system (i.e. all ASIC specific pins are left unused):

Core Integration

The full pinout of the core is summarized in the following table.

Port Name Direction Width Clock
Domain
Description
Clocks
cpu_en Input 1 <async>
or mclk4
Enable CPU code execution (asynchronous and non-glitchy).
Set to 1 if unused.
dco_clk Input 1 -
Fast oscillator (fast clock)
lfxt_clk Input 1 -
Low frequency oscillator (typ. 32kHz)
Set to 0 if unused.
mclk Output 1 -
Main system clock
aclk_en Output 1 mclk
FPGA ONLY: ACLK enable
smclk_en Output 1 mclk
FPGA ONLY: SMCLK enable
dco_enable Output
1
dco_clk
ASIC ONLY: Fast oscillator enable
dco_wkup Output 1
<async>
ASIC ONLY: Fast oscillator wakeup (asynchronous)
lfxt_enable Output 1
lfxt_clk
ASIC ONLY: Low frequency oscillator enable
lfxt_wkup Output 1
<async>
ASIC ONLY: Low frequency oscillator wakeup (asynchronous)
aclk Output 1
-
ASIC ONLY: ACLK
smclk Output 1
-
ASIC ONLY: SMCLK
wkup Input
1
<async>
ASIC ONLY: System Wake-up (asynchronous and non-glitchy)
Set to 0 if unused.
Resets
puc_rst Output 1 mclk
Main system reset
reset_n Input 1 <async>
Reset Pin (active low, asynchronous and non-glitchy)
Program Memory interface
pmem_addr Output `PMEM_AWIDTH1 mclk
Program Memory address
pmem_cen Output 1 mclk Program Memory chip enable (low active)
pmem_din Output 16 mclk Program Memory data input (optional 2)
pmem_dout Input 16 mclk Program Memory data output
pmem_wen Output 2 mclk Program Memory write byte enable (low active) (optional 2)
Data Memory interface
dmem_addr Output `DMEM_AWIDTH1 mclk Data Memory address
dmem_cen Output 1 mclk Data Memory chip enable (low active)
dmem_din Output 16 mclk Data Memory data input
dmem_dout Input 16 mclk Data Memory data output
dmem_wen Output 2 mclk Data Memory write byte enable (low active)
External Peripherals interface
per_addr Output 14 mclk Peripheral address
per_din Output 16 mclk Peripheral data input
per_dout Input 16 mclk Peripheral data output
per_en Output 1 mclk Peripheral enable (high active)
per_we Output 2 mclk Peripheral write byte enable (high active)
Interrupts
irq Input `IRQ_NR-21 mclk Maskable interrupts (one-hot signal)
nmi Input 1 <async>
or mclk4
Non-maskable interrupt (asynchronous)
irq_acc Output `IRQ_NR-21 mclk Interrupt request accepted (one-hot signal)
Serial Debug interface
dbg_en Input 1 <async>
or mclk4
Debug interface enable (asynchronous) 3
dbg_freeze Output 1 mclk Freeze peripherals
dbg_uart_txd Output 1 mclk Debug interface: UART TXD
dbg_uart_rxd Input 1 <async>
Debug interface: UART RXD (asynchronous)
dbg_i2c_addr Input 1 mclk
Debug interface: I2C Address
dbg_i2c_broadcast Input 1 mclk
Debug interface: I2C Broadcast Address (for multicore only)
dbg_i2c_scl Input 1 <async> Debug interface: I2C SCL
dbg_i2c_sda_in Input 1 <async> Debug interface: I2C SDA input
dbg_i2c_sda_out Output 1 mclk
Debug interface: I2C SDA output
Scan
scan_enable
Input
1
dco_clk
ASIC ONLY: Scan enable (active during scan shifting)
scan_mode
Input
1
<stable>
ASIC ONLY: Scan mode

1: This parameter is declared in the "openMSP430_defines.v" file and defines the RAM/ROM size or the number of interrupts vectors (16, 32 or 64).
2: These two optional ports can be connected whenever the program memory is a RAM. This will allow the user to load a program through the serial debug interface and to use software breakpoints.
3: When disabled, the debug interface is hold into reset (and clock gated in ASIC mode). As a consequence, the dbg_en port can be used to reset the debug interface without disrupting the CPU execution.
4: Clock domain is selectable through configuration in the "openMSP430_defines.v" file (see Advanced System Configuration).


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2. Clocks

The different clocks in the design are managed by the Basic Clock Module as following in the FPGA configuration:

Clock structure diagram

or as following in the ASIC configuration:

Clock structure diagram
  • CPU_EN: this input port provides a hardware mean to stop or resume CPU execution. When unused, this port should be set to 1.

  • DCO_CLK: this input port is typically connected to a PLL, RC oscillator or any clock resource the target FPGA/ASIC might provide.
    For the FPGA configuration, from a synthesis tool perspective (ISE, Quartus, Libero, Design Compiler...), this the only port where a clock needs to be declared.

  • LFXT_CLK: in an FPGA system, if ACLK_EN or SMCLK_EN are going to be used in the project (for example through the Watchdog or TimerA peripherals), then this port needs to be connected to a clock running at least two time slower as DCO_CLK (typically 32kHz). It can be connected to 0 or 1 otherwise.
    In an ASIC, if ACLK or SMCLK are used and if the clock muxes are included, then this port can be connected to any kind of clock source (it doesn't need to be low-frequency. The name was just kept to be consistent with TI's documentation).

  • MCLK: the main system clock drives the complete openMSP430 clock domain, including program/data memories and the peripheral interfaces.

  • ACLK_EN / SMCLK_EN: these two clock enable signals can be used in order to emulate the original ACLK and SMCLK from the MSP430 specification when the core is targeting an FPGA.
    An example of this can be found in the Watchdog and TimerA modules, where it is implemented as following:

    Clock implementation example
  • ACLK / SMCLK: ACLK and MCLK are available through these two ports when targeting an ASIC.
     
  • DCO_ENABLE / DCO_WKUP: ASIC specific signals controlling the fast clock generator for low power mode support (SCG0 bit in the status register).

  • LFXT_ENABLE / LFXT_WKUP: ASIC specific signals controlling the low frequency clock generator for low power mode support (OSCOFF bit in the status register).
     
  • WKUP: When activated, this signal allows a peripheral to restore all CPU clocks (i.e. wakeup the cpu) prior IRQ generation.  Note that IRQs MUST always be generated from the MCLK clock domain.
As an FPGA system illustration, the following waveform shows the different clocks where the software running on the openMSP430 configures the BCSCTL1 and BCSCTL2 registers so that ACLK_EN and SMCLK_EN are respectively running at LFXT_CLK/2 and DCO_CLK/4.

Clocks - Jan 12. 2010

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3. Resets

  • RESET_N: this input port is typically connected to a board push button and is generally combined with the system power-on-reset.

  • PUC_RST: the Power-Up-Clear signal is asynchronously set with the reset pin (RESET_N), the watchdog reset or the serial debug interface reset. In order to get clean timings, it is synchronously cleared with MCLK. As a general rule, this signal should be used as the reset of the MCLK clock domain.

The following waveform illustrates this:

Resets - Jan 12. 2010

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4. Program Memory

Depending on the project needs, the program memory can be either implemented as a ROM or RAM.

If a ROM is selected then the PMEM_DIN and PMEM_WEN ports won't be connected. In that case, the software debug capabilities are limited because the serial debug interface can only use hardware breakpoints in order to stop the program execution. In addition, updating the software will require a reprogramming of the FPGA... or a new ROM mask for an ASIC.

If the program memory is a RAM, the developer gets full flexibility regarding software debugging. The serial debug interface can be used to update the program memory and software breakpoints can be used.


That said, the protocol between the openMSP430 and the program memory is quite standard. Signal description goes as following:
  • PMEM_CEN: when this signal is active, the read/write access will be executed with the next MCLK rising edge. Note that this signal is LOW ACTIVE.

  • PMEM_ADDR: Memory address of the 16 bit word which is going to be accessed.
    Note: in order to calculate the core logical address from the program memory physical address, the formula goes as following: LOGICAL@=2*PHYSICAL@+0x10000-PMEM_SIZE

  • PMEM_DOUT: the memory output word will be updated with every valid read/write access (i.e. PMEM_DOUT is not updated if PMEM_CEN=1).

  • PMEM_WEN: this signal selects which byte should be written during a valid access. PMEM_WEN[0] will activate a write on the lower byte, PMEM_WEN[1] a write on the upper byte. Note that these signals are LOW ACTIVE.

  • PMEM_DIN: the memory input word will be written with the valid write access according to the PMEM_WEN value.

The following waveform illustrates some read accesses of the program memory (write access are illustrated in the data memory section):

Program memory - Jan

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5. Data Memory

The data memory is always implemented as a RAM.

The protocol between the openMSP430 and the data memory is the same as the one of the program memory. Therefore, the signal description is the same:
  • DMEM_CEN: when this signal is active, the read/write access will be executed with the next MCLK rising edge. Note that this signal is LOW ACTIVE.

  • DMEM_ADDR: Memory address of the 16 bit word which is going to be accessed.
    Note: in order to calculate the core logical address from the data memory physical address, the formula goes as following: LOGICAL@=2*PHYSICAL@+0x200

  • DMEM_DOUT: the memory output word will be updated with every valid read/write access (i.e. DMEM_DOUT is not updated if DMEM_CEN=1).

  • DMEM_WEN: this signal selects which byte should be written during a valid access. DMEM_WEN[0] will activate a write on the lower byte, DMEM_WEN[1] a write on the upper byte. Note that these signals are LOW ACTIVE.

  • DMEM_DIN: the memory input word will be written with the valid write access according to the DMEM_WEN value.

The following waveform illustrates some read/write access to the data memory:

Data memory - Jan 12.

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6. Peripherals

The protocol between the openMSP430 core and its peripherals is the exactly same as the one with the data and program memories in regard to write access and differs slightly for read access.

On the connectivity side, the specificity is that the read data bus of all peripherals should be ORed together before being connected to the core, as showed in the diagram of the Overview section.
From the logical point of view, during a read access, each peripheral outputs the combinatorial value of its read mux and returns 0 if it doesn't contain the addressed register. On the waveforms, this translates by seeing the register value on PER_DOUT while PER_EN is valid and not one clock cycle afterward as it is the case with the program and data memories.
In any case, it is recommended to use the templates provided with the core in order to develop your own custom peripherals.
The signal description therefore goes as following:
  • PER_EN: when this signal is active, read access are executed during the current MCLK cycle while write access will be executed with the next MCLK rising edge. Note that this signal is HIGH ACTIVE.

  • PER_ADDR: peripheral register address of the 16 bit word which is currently accessed. It is to be noted that a 14 bit address will always be provided from the openMSP430 to the peripheral in order to accommodate the biggest possible PER_SIZE Verilog configuration option (i.e. 32kB as opposed to 512B by default).
    Note: in order to calculate the core logical address from the peripheral register physical address, the formula goes as following: LOGICAL@=2*PHYSICAL@

  • PER_DOUT: the peripheral output word will be updated with every valid read/write access, it will be set to 0 otherwise.

  • PER_WE: this signal selects which byte should be written during a valid access. PER_WE[0] will activate a write on the lower byte, PER_WE[1] a write on the upper byte. Note that these signals are HIGH ACTIVE.

  • PER_DIN: the peripheral input word will be written with the valid write access according to the PER_WEN value.

The following waveform illustrates some read/write access to the peripheral registers:

Peripherals - Jan 12.

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7. Interrupts

As with the original MSP430, the interrupt priorities of the openMSP430 are fixed in hardware accordingly to the connectivity of the NMI and IRQ ports.
If two interrupts are pending simultaneously, the higher priority interrupt will be serviced first.
The following table summarize this:

  Interrupt Port     Vector address     Priority  
RESET_N 0xFFFE 15 (highest)
NMI 0xFFFC 14
IRQ[13] 0xFFFA 13
IRQ[12] 0xFFF8 12
IRQ[11] 0xFFF6 11
IRQ[10] 0xFFF4 10
IRQ[9] 0xFFF2 9
IRQ[8] 0xFFF0 8
IRQ[7] 0xFFEE 7
IRQ[6] 0xFFEC 6
IRQ[5] 0xFFEA 5
IRQ[4] 0xFFE8 4
IRQ[3] 0xFFE6 3
IRQ[2] 0xFFE4 2
IRQ[1] 0xFFE2 1
IRQ[0] 0xFFE0 0 (lowest)


The signal description goes as following:
  • NMI: The Non-Maskable Interrupt has higher priority than other IRQs and is masked by the NMIIE bit instead of GIE.
    It is internally synchronized to the MCLK domain and can therefore be connected to any asynchronous signal of the chip (which could for example be a pin of the FPGA). If unused, this signal should be connected to 0.

  • IRQ: The standard interrupts can be connected to any signal coming from the MCLK domain (typically a peripheral). Priorities can be chosen by selecting the proper bit of the IRQ bus as shown in the table above. Unused interrupts should be connected to 0.
    Note: IRQ[10] is internally connected to the Watchdog interrupt. If this bit is also used by an external peripheral, they will both share the same interrupt vector.

  • IRQ_ACC: Whenever an interrupt request is serviced, some peripheral automatically clear their pending flag in hardware. In order to do so, the IRQ_ACC bus can be used by using the bit matching the corresponding IRQ bit. An example of this is shown in the implementation of the TACCR0 Timer A interrupt.

The following waveform illustrates a TAIV interrupt issued by the Timer-A, which is connected to IRQ[8] :

Interrupts - Jan 12.

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8. Serial Debug Interface

The serial debug interface module provides a two-wires communication bus (UART or I2C) for remote debugging and an additional freeze signal which might be useful for some peripherals (typically timers).

  • DBG_EN: this signal allows the user to enable or disable the serial debug interface without interfering with the CPU execution. It is to be noted that when disabled (i.e. DBG_EN=0), the debug interface is held into reset.

  • DBG_FREEZE: this signal will be set whenever the debug interface stops the CPU (and if the FRZ_BRK_EN field of the CPU_CTL debug register is set). As its name implies, the purpose of DBG_FREEZE is to freeze a peripheral whenever the CPU is stopped by the software debugger.
    For example, it is used by the Watchdog timer in order to stop its free-running counter. This prevents the CPU from being reseted by the watchdog every times the user stops the CPU during a debugging session.

8.1 UART Configuration

  • DBG_UART_TXD / DBG_UART_RXD: these signals are typically connected to an RS-232 transceiver and will allow a PC to communicate with the openMSP430 core.

The following waveform shows some communication traffic on the UART serial bus :

SDI - Jan 12. 2010

8.2 I2C Configuration

  • DBG_I2C_ADDR: I2C Device address of the oMSP core (between 8 and 119). In a multi-core configuration each core has its own address.

  • DBG_I2C_BROADCAST: I2C Device broadcast address of the oMSP core (between 8 and 119). In a multi-core configuration all cores have the same broadcast address.

  • DBG_I2C_SCL: I2C bus clock input (SCL).

  • DBG_I2C_SDA_OUT / DBG_I2C_SDA_IN: these signals are connected to the SDA I/O cell as following:

    I2C SDA IO Connect

The following waveform shows some communication traffic on the I2C serial bus :

SDI I2C

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